Today 297 libraries, 265 clubs, 16 museums, a picture gallery, 2 State Theatre, 6 cultural and rest parks, 25 child music and art schools act in the Autonomous Republic.
Ethnic structure
According to the list of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic's population which making out in 1970, its population was 202.187.
According to the result of the making out a list of population in January 27-February 4, 1999, population of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic were 354.072 (350.806
Azerbaijani, 2.282 Kurd, 517 Russian, 215 Turkish, 140 Ukrainian, 51 Tatar, 17 Armenian, 11 Lezghin, 2 Georgian, 1 Talish, 30 other members of the nations.

Nakhchivan is the one of the oldest area of Azerbaijan which has old history and rich material culture monuments. Here natives had a sedentary life and have busied various farming and art fields. It called "Nakhchuan", or "Nagshechahan".
Nakhchivan showed as "Nagshechahan" in some Persian and Turkish sources. The word of "Nakhchivan" comes from Turkish origin. Some researchers give it some meanings such as "Nakhsuana" in Greek language, "Nakhch" in Pahlavi language, "Nashava"in Arabic language or the land of Oghuz braves Akhchivan-Nakhchivan. Final researches give the meaning of the Nakhchivab" as "Nahhunte" in the language of Elam. We can think that its first name as Nahhuntevan because of the old toponimic name "Van". Then this name changed its form as Nakhchivan by local Turkish natives.
Nakhchivan is the most famous and oldest city of the East. İt is miee than 3500years old. We can meet first written source about Nakhchivan in C. Ptolemy’s "Geographia". He wrote by informing that it is a city of İi century B.C."Naksuana is the centre of the Vaspuraqa which has huge area. This country consists of 37 nahiyas, one of them is Naksuana". Final researches show that this city created before B.C in the middle of İi century(1539).
Nakhchivan which is situated on the Big Caravan Road, destroyed by Sassanids in III century of B.C. The silver coins which were written "Nakhch" on them and belongs to Sassanid were created in the Sassanid’s' Mints at from the first half of VI century to the first half of Vii century.
Nakhchivan Khanate
After the cuicide of Nadir Afshar in 1747, about 20 independence feudal khanates created in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan Khanates divided into two groups in the West and North:
In North: Shaki, Guba, Gandja, Baku, Darband, Nakhchivan, Shirvan, Talish, İravan, Salyan, Garabagh, Javad.
In the West: Tabriz, Urmiya, Ardabil, Khoy, Garadagh, Sarab, Maragha, Maku. İn the middle of the XVIII century, Haydarkhulu Khan who was the leader of Kangarli tribe announced himself as a khan of Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Khanate consisted of Nakhchivan, Sharur, Ordubad, Mehri, Khagan and others. In 1787 Kalbali Khan became Nakhchivan Khan. During the period of Khanates revival happened in Nakhchivan.
During the period of first Russia-İranian(1805-1813), according to the Gulustan contract Nakhchivan was under the occupation of İranian Government. During the period of the second war Russia-İranian(1826-1828) the Russian Army in 1827 occupied Nakhchivan. Uniting of Nakhchivan to Russia finished with the Turkmanchay contract between Russia-İranian in 1828. Nakhchivan in 1841 became the Khaza centre. Its area belonged to Georgia Imeratia in 1841, but from 1850 it belonged to Irevan province which was under Azerbaijani Government.

Nakhchivan during the Soviet Union Period
During the period of Bolshevik's government in Azerbaijan on July 28, Nakhchivan Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Nakhchivan Revolution Committee was selected as high organ. Revolution Committee announced Nakhchivan the component part of Azerbaijan. According to the contract which signed in Moscow between Moscow-Kars, with the condition that Nakhchivan would not be compromise to a third country, was decided that it would be under the wing of Azerbaijan. Moscow and Kars contracts had useful importance for saving areas of Nakhchivan. In the period of Soviet Union some areas of Nakhchivan were given to Armenia, by the way economic, social relations were prevented. Nakhchivan was called as Nakhchivan Soviet Socialist Republic from 16 March in 1921, Nakhchivan land to on March 1923, Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on February, 1924, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic from November 17, 1990.
Azerbaijan and its component part Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, for earning independence fought in a long time. The destroy process of Soviet Union brought Garabagh events to setting on fire again and fighting between Azerbaijanis and Armenians. On January 19, 1990, Soviet Army by the way of entering to Baku for preventing independence action gave birth to bloody genocide. Russia-Armenia Army occupied Kerki village of Nakhchivan AR and attacked intensive along border 8hours before this event. Hundreds of Azerbaijanis were killed. High Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic couldn't take warranty for saving boundaries, by the way of taking Moscow and Kars contracts main things, took decision about getting out from being a member of Soviet Union Republic. This was the beginning of the actual collapse of the Soviet Union.
Like other lands of Azerbaijan Armenians were habituated as other lands of Azerbaijan in Nakhchivan too, after being under the Government of Russia. As we know, armenians in 1828 from western Azerbaijan, Tabriz and cities around of them, in 1929-1830 Arzurum and cities around of it, were habituated in Nakhchivan and İravan. Since 1905, the massacre had taken place between the Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Nakhchivan. Since 1917, they have made territorial claims to Nakhchivan Autonomous State.
According to the legal status of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan, it is Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan within the state. Its area is 5.5 thousand square kilometres and a population is 384.5 thousand (2007). İslam is the dominant religion, the local and official language is Azerbaijan language, Nakhchivan is the capital city, the higher person is the Chairman of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
The constitution of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic based on the first constitution of Azerbaijan which was adopted on November 12, 1995, on April 28, 1998, in the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic it was, on 29 December of the same year it was approved in the National Assembly of the Azerbaijan Republic and it came into force on 8 January, 1999. According to the first Article of the Constitution, the Autonomous Status of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic was determined by the Constitution of Azerbaijan Republic and the contracts between Moscow and Kars in 1921.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic by the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Repiblic independently settles the issues which attributed to it. In Autonomous Republic State Government is based on the principle of separation of powers; the legislative power shall be exercised by the Parliament of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic the Supreme Assembly, The executive power by the Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, judicial power by the courts of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

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